Working in black is sometimes about closing down the available routes to reference, meaning and information. For example, Francesca Pastine's blacked out newspaper pages that leave only visible images of Iraqi casualties of war. She uses black to funnel your attention, to make you look and to mask out the other images and text. Her black in these pieces acts as a pointer. In her entirely blacked out New York Times section A piece she makes the whole tome of data devoid of content altogether. Her obfuscation of "all the news fit to print" asks how valid or not the erased content was.